Research Methodology Methods And Techniques

Research methods refer to the methods that a researcher uses while conducting any research. The researcher has made clear distinctions between research methods and research techniques. Research techniques involve the tools and the behavior we use in research operations like observations, interviews, questionnaires, etc. This article will describe the research methodology about the methods and techniques.

1. Library Research 

In library research, you gather and process data step by step by using existing data and documents. It is conducted to prepare a presentation, to publish a paper, or for other purposes. On the processing of each document, you will find changes every time in the information you collected even you may have to make changes in your research topic as well.

Methods: The researcher searches out the historical records by visiting libraries or by collecting data from the hub of publications. Documents relevant to the topic need to get processed to get reliable information.

Techniques: it involves making notes, analyzing content, transcribing the tape recording, evaluating statistical analysis, and studying reference guides and content lists.

2. Field Research

Field researches involve multiple methods as given under:

  • Observational Method: This method involves various techniques like observer may record the behavior of the participants at public places, in peer-groups, or the field. Besides, photographs, tape recorders, and written notes are used as tools to transcribe later.
  • Mail Questionnaire: In this method, a Questionnaire is posted via post office or sent via an online e-mail box depending upon the feasibility of the respondent. The purpose to use this technique is to get information related to the socio-economic background as well as brief information about the topic of the research.
  • Opinion Polls: In opinion polls, the public is open to answer about a specific question or set of questions on a fixed topic. Opinion polls are famous for the election campaigns. People often respond in opinion polls more quickly as respondents’ information is not required in this method.
  • One-to-one interviews: The interviewer asks the questions related to a fixed social or personal phenomenon. The interview schedule may include open-ended and closed-ended questions.
  • Focus Groups: Focus groups are conducted to interview a group of people at the same time. Every interviewee is given equal opportunity to answer a question in detail within a fixed time scenario.
  • Case studies: Cross-sectional and longitudinal research techniques are used in studying this type of research. The researcher follows the participants from a few days to even years to collect data and personal information.
  • Telephonic or online surveys: In this method, participants are contacted online or via phone calls to get information about the questionnaire, and sometimes calls are made to take feedback on the questionnaire.

3. Laboratory Research

The laboratory research method involves studying a specific behavior exhibited by a group of people. Experimental research is the best example of this method. The techniques involve audio-visual devices and direct observation by the observer in the essay lab.

Qualitative Research Method vs. Quantitative Research Method

Above mentioned research types involve technique used in quantitative and qualitative research paradigms. As the name implies, quantitative research refers to the data that is collected in the form of numbers, and later on, mathematical calculations are run over it. In Quantitative research, the researcher usually asks close-ended questions, and later on, the answers of the participants are analyzed quantitatively.

In qualitative research, the subjective feelings, emotions, thoughts, perceptions, and cognition of the participants are studied. This type of data is collected through interviews and verbal discussions with the participants. The answers of the participants are analyzed and evaluated later to conclude results.

Research methodology

The research method is part of the research methodology but the research methodology has a broader dimension. The following points are considered while designing a research methodology:

  • Why does this research need to be conducted?
  • What is the logic behind considering this research topic?
  • What effect the research will fall upon the participants?
  • Who can get benefitted from this research?
  • Why a particular research method is chosen for the research?
  • How a researcher can justify the sample selected from a targeted population?
  • What methods will be used for analyzing and evaluating the collected data?

In simple words, research methodology involves the objectives of the study, defining the topic of the study, hypothesis formulation, significance of the study, methods, and tools used for the data collection and analysis, and overall procedure that is used while conducting specific research. In short, a researcher has to get prepared for all the above-mentioned questions before starting any research.

The research methodology offers a complete plan of the research prepared by the researcher. Additionally, after scheduling the research methodology, the researcher knows the merits and demerits of the research. The research method is a small step in the research methodology while research methodology prevails the whole study from the topic to the results.

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Suza Anjleena

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